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Oswald had acted as a defence counsel against the regime's authority several times during the increasingly politically-driven trials by which the Nazis sought to enforce their tyrannical control of German society, and he had the habit of wearing his Nazi Party membership badge in court whilst doing so. Propaganda minister Joseph Goebbels reproached Oswald Freisler and reported his actions to Adolf Hitler who, in response, ordered Freisler's expulsion from the Party.
Oswald Freisler died, allegedly by committing suicide, in Freisler was a committed National Socialist ideologist, and used his legal skills to adapt its theories into practical law-making and judicature. He published a paper entitled "Die rassebiologische Aufgabe bei der Neugestaltung des Jugendstrafrechts "The racial-biological task involved in the reform of juvenile criminal law".
He strongly advocated the creation of laws to punish Rassenschande "race defilement", the Nazi term for sexual relations between "Aryans" and "inferior races" , to be classed as "racial treason. Nevertheless, while some more conservative Nazi lawyers objected to the lack of precision with which a person could be defined as a "Jew," Freisler argued that American judges were able to identify black people for purposes of laws in American states that prohibited " miscegenation " between black and white people, and laws that otherwise codified racial segregation , and, therefore, German laws could similarly target Jews even if the term "Jew" could not be given a precise legal definition.
In he published a pamphlet calling for the legal prohibition of "mixed-blood" sexual intercourse, which met with expressions of public unease in the dying elements of the German free press and non-Nazi political classes and, at the time, lacked public authorization from the policy of the Nazi Party, which had only just obtained dictatorial control of the state. In October , Freisler introduced the concept of 'precocious juvenile criminal' in the "Juvenile Felons Decree".
This "provided the legal basis for imposing the death penalty and penitentiary terms on juveniles for the first time in German legal history. On the outbreak of World War II Freisler issued a legal "Decree against National Parasites" September introducing the term perpetrator type , which was used in combination with another National Socialist ideological term, parasite.
The adoption of racial biological terminology into law portrayed juvenile criminality as 'parasitical', implying the need for harsher sentences to remedy it. He justified the new concept with: "in times of war, breaches of loyalty and baseness cannot find any leniency and must be met with the full force of the law. On 20 January Freisler, representing the Reich Minister Franz Schlegelberger , attended the Wannsee Conference of senior governmental officials in a villa on the southwestern outskirts of Berlin to provide expert legal advice for the planning of the destruction of European Jewry.
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This court had jurisdiction over a broad array of political offences, including black marketeering , work slowdowns and defeatism. These actions were viewed by Freisler as Wehrkraftzersetzung undermining defensive capability and were punished severely, with many death sentences. The People's Court under Freisler's domination almost always sided with the prosecuting authority, to the point that being brought before it was tantamount to a capital charge.
Its separate administrative existence beyond the ordinary judicial system increased its notoriety, and despite its judicial trappings it rapidly turned into an executive execution arm and psychological domestic terror weapon of Nazi Germany's totalitarian regime, in the tradition of a revolutionary tribunal more than a court of law.
Freisler chaired the First Senate of the People's Court wearing a blood scarlet judicial robe, in a hearing chamber bedecked with scarlet swastika -draped banners and a large black sculpted bust of Adolf Hitler's head upon a high pedestal behind his chair, opening each hearing session with the Nazi salute from the bench.
(1932 - 1945)
The number of death sentences rose sharply under Freisler's rule. Between and , more than 5, death sentences were decreed by him, 2, of these through the court's First Senate, which Freisler controlled.
He was responsible in his three years on the court for as many death sentences as all other senate sessions of the court combined in the court's existence between and Freisler became notorious during this period for berating each member of the steady stream of defendants passing before him, in a personalized injudicial manner from the bench on their way to their deaths, often shouting and occasionally yelling at them — particularly in cases of resistance to the authority of the Nazi state — in an enraged, glaringly clarion but dramatically controlled harsh voice, using a mastery of the craft of artificially professional legal courtroom "performance".
She is a passionate traveler and has lived in several countries such as the US and Mexico. The Berlin-based startup develops direct-to-consumer brands together with social media influencers. Julian started his career with Deutsche Bank before meeting his cofounders during his graduate studies at Zeppelin University.
Ann Cathrin Riedel is a Social Media strategist, working for political parties, think tanks and different associations. She studies Islamic studies and political science and writes, talks and posts about her favorite topics Islam and the Arab World, feminism and the digitalization. She combined these topics in her BA thesis on women and social media activism in Saudi Arabia.
She thinks, the Moroccan explorer sums up perfectly why FreeInterrail is so important. Fabian Stephany is a data scientist, columnist, and passionate European. His research examines social capital and trust in Europe. Fabian strongly believes that the personal encounter creates the mutual confidence young Europeans need to jointly master the future challenges of our continent.
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The passion for traveling was developed by Ronja Teschendorf at the age of Curiosity, openness and love for adventures led her to discover several cultures, experience different ways of living and to find out what really mattered to her. This is why she studies politics and languages while being an active in projects with refugees and other young people. As part of the youth organization JEF, she encourages people to participate and experience in politics in Europe. She is convinced: Europe is, what we make of it! Yannic Bellino lives in the Meuse—Rhine Euroregion where he had the privilege of making friends with people from all over Europe.
He is convinced that through the opportunity of discovering the diversity and beauty of the manifold European cultures, the idea of Europe as a united entity can gain new momentum among the generations that will shape our common future. To him FreeInterrail is the expression of a nascent European civil society and public.
Student of International Relations at the University of Groningen, he co-founded ThinkTheWall, a movement of young Europeans celebrating their right to free movement in light of increasing violations to the Schengen Agreement. She knows by experience that leaving your comfort zone and getting to know other cultures is the best way to learn about yourself, fight stereotypes and create openness. Since the first time she heard about FreeInterRail she was thus convinced that this is exactly the kind of project Europe needs right now. Europe is an extraordinary project in the making.
Peter studies, lives, and works in Berlin, but loves to discover Europe time and again — BeEurope.
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Katja Sinko is Vice-Chair of the Berlin-Brandenburg section of theYoung European Federalists JEF , a supranational, politically pluralist youth organisation that seeks European integration through the strengthening and democratisation of the European Union. Katja, who has been lucky to travel more than 20 European countries, is convinced that FreeInterrail will bring Europe closer to the citizens and the citizens closer to Europe.
Akil is strongly passionate about removing borders in our hearts, our minds and on the ground. She strongly believes that the free movement of people within Europe is one of the most vital forms of realizing this continent. If FreeInterrail succeeds in empowering young people to overcome not only national borders, but also social inequalities, it is a powerful opportunity to foster a European identity! Hannah Kurek , born in Berlin, identifies herself as European rather than German.
Having traveled to as many countries as she is old, she advocates for open borders and minds alike and passionately promotes the resulting intercultural exchange. Currently focusing on graduating does not keep her from planning her future, including greater engagement for the European idea and her own interrail trip.
Gary Paterson is a European youth activist focused on widening opportunities, tackling inequality, and developing European citizenship and education. Edoardo Caroli is a young European who wants to shape a new generation of leaders. He is an adventurous traveller and a persevering motivator. Since he is trying to make European youth more proactively engaged in politics and in developing critical thinking.
Edoardo is also funder of a Brussels-based pressure group that advocates for a common, sustainable and efficient solution for the migration management crisis.
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Barbara is European by heart, Austrian by birth and Belgian resident by choice. For the last four years, she has actively contributed to several European movements such as the European Forum Alpbach, the Generation Initiative and The Good Lobby, all aiming at empowering Europeans to co-create the society of tomorrow.
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Why supporting FreeInterrail? Barbara works in EU civilian crisis management. Get in touch for Brussels-based meet-ups and FreeInterrail citizen lobbying.
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He is now engaged in European Youth Politics with FYEG, dreaming of a Europe without frontiers, where you can use all trains, public transport and bike sharing all over Europe — with one ticket! His passion for travelling and exploring Europe made him a supporter of FreeInterrail. Silvan is from the Berlin area and currently working as a media operator. As a passionate traveler, he embraces the European idea by taking advantage of the freedom of movement.
He has traveled to dozens of European countries and wants all young Europeans to have the same chance. Goldhagen, Daniel New York: Knopf. The Battle for Germany television documentary. Retrieved 15 May Hillgruber, Andreas Westpoint, CT: Meckler. Himmler, Katrin The Himmler Brothers. London: Pan Macmillan.